International Progress in Vaccine Development
Kunal J. Rambhia and Jennifer Nuzzo, December 17, 2009
Shortly after the detection of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, the U.S. and other governments decided to develop vaccine against this novel influenza virus in anticipation of and preparation for a second wave of flu in the fall. As we pass through the fall flu season, progress in the licensure, distribution, and administration of vaccine is at various stages around the world. This issue brief provides an overview of the major vaccination efforts around the world, highlighting specific events and controversies that have arisen over the past 6 months.
Status of Vaccine Production
Manufacturers headquartered in the U.S., Europe, China, Australia, Korea, and Japan have developed and produced vaccine against 2009 H1N1 influenza using a variety of technologies and formulations. Generally, each vaccine must gain approval from a country’s regulatory authority, like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), prior to use. The European Union (EU), Canada, and Korea have approved vaccines with immune-boosting adjuvants, and the EU has also approved a vaccine produced through newer, cell culture based technology. The table below provides an overview of major vaccine efforts worldwide.
Table 1: Major International Vaccine
|Adjuvant||Countries of approval|
Denka Seiken Co.
Kaketsuken (The Chemo-Sero-
Therapeutic Research Institute)
The Kitasato Institute
Progress in Vaccine Distribution
China: China was the first country to approve and begin administering 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. The country’s mass vaccination program commenced on October 1, 2009, when 200,000 volunteers for China’s National Day celebration were immunized. China’s priority groups for vaccination are pregnant women, children aged 5-19 years, those with respiratory conditions, and front line public service personnel. On November 6, 2009, the Beijing health authorities opened vaccination to the city’s entire population of approximately 16 million people.24 As of Monday, November 9, China had vaccinated 87 million people.25
Europe: The U.S. and the EU followed, approving vaccines in mid- to late September and beginning vaccination programs in early to mid-October. In Europe, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is responsible for reviewing data for approval of drugs and vaccines in the EU. However, member countries have also independently approved and purchased vaccines that are not currently approved by the EMEA. To date, vaccination progress in Europe is mixed. While Sweden and Norway have vaccinated 33% and 25% of their populations, respectively, Poland has yet to start. Many other countries have not completed vaccination of priority groups, and some mass vaccination efforts are just beginning.26
In the countries with national health systems—United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and France—vaccine is being administered to high priority groups by invitation.27 In the UK, each medical practice in Britain’s National Health Service initially received 500 doses of vaccine to target high risk groups, which included pregnant women and people with underlying health conditions. There have been no reports from the UK of shortages or long lines at vaccine clinics. Exact reasons for this are unclear, but by virtue of its national health system, it appears that the UK was able to more easily identify and communicate with people who were prioritized for vaccination. And because the system also allowed for scheduled vaccinations, confusion about eligibility and vaccine availability seems to be reduced. In addition, the UK’s use of an adjuvanted vaccine, which provides up to 4 doses for every unadjuvanted dose of vaccine, may have expedited vaccine availability.28
Canada: Of the 50.4 million doses of vaccine ordered by the Canadian government, 1.8 million are unadjuvanted vaccine from CSL Limited and GSK (Arepanrix), and the remaining 48.6 million doses are adjuvanted Arepanrix. Of the 1.8 million doses of unadjuvanted vaccine, Canada purchased 200,000 doses of CSL’s PanVax vaccine.29 The country began mass vaccination efforts in late October and early November, focusing on pregnant women, children aged 6 months to 5 years, those with chronic health conditions, people living in remote or isolated communities, healthcare workers, household contacts of infants under 6 months of age, and people who are immunocompromised.30
Japan: While most governments are providing vaccine at no charge, Japan is charging a fee of 6,150 yen (approximately $69) for 2 doses of vaccine. The country supplemented the 50 million doses it purchased from Novartis and GSK with vaccine made in Japan by 4 companies that are expected to produce an additional 27 million doses.23
Other countries have been slower to approve, purchase, and distribute vaccines. Most countries that have begun mass vaccination efforts are prioritizing vaccine in a manner similar to that of the U.S. While there is some variation in focus, pregnant women are being prioritized nearly universally. By late November and early December, some countries had expanded their vaccination efforts from their priority groups to larger groups or their populations as a whole.
Concerns and Controversies
Surrounding Vaccine Development and Distribution
On November 25, 2009, Canada and GSK advised healthcare providers to stop using a particular lot of GSK’s Arepanrix due to increased allergic reactions.31 Worldwide, with the exception of problems with this particular lot, there have not been significant reports of events that call into question of the safety of monovalent H1N1 vaccines in humans. The 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines, which have been produced through manufacturing processes already established for seasonal flu, are demonstrating patterns of adverse events similar to those of seasonal flu vaccines.
Germany began its mass vaccination program on October 26, using 200,000 doses of Baxter International’s unadjuvanted, cell-culture-based vaccine, Celvapan, and 50 million doses of GSK’s adjuvanted, egg-based vaccine, Pandemrix. Both vaccines, which were purchased by the German government, were evaluated for safety and efficacy by the EMEA, and both were approved for use in the EU. However, when Germany began its mass vaccination program, it announced that Celvapan would be given to government officials and military personnel, while Pandemrix would be distributed to the public. The public perceived that the safer of the 2 vaccines was being administered to the government and military, which raised questions about the fairness of the mass vaccination efforts.32
On November 4, 2009, a senior member of the staff of the Alberta Health Services in Canada was fired for allowing members of the Calgary Flames National Hockey League (NHL) team and their families to receive 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines while clinics in Canada experienced shortages.33 The decision by Alberta Health Services to vaccinate the Calgary team was based on its assessment that they were a priority due to extensive border crossing and the close contact of the sport. However, the hockey players do not fall into the priority groups outlined by the Canadian government. Other sports teams in Canada were also discovered to have been vaccinated ahead of those in the established priority groups. As a result, Canadian vaccine clinics established stricter eligibility guidelines.34
Preparing for the 2010 Flu Season
The WHO added the 2009 H1N1 strain of influenza virus to the normal seasonal vaccine for the 2010 Southern Hemisphere flu season.35 In the Southern Hemisphere, seasonal flu occurs from May through August, whereas in the Northern Hemisphere, seasonal flu occurs during the months of November through February. Even though Australia’s regular flu season is over on September 30, the country is pursuing mass vaccination against 2009 H1N1 influenza. The government purchased 21 million doses of CSL’s PanVax, with the intent of vaccinating the entire population.35 This decision was made because it is expected that 2009 H1N1 influenza virus will continue to circulate in Australia and the rest of the Southern Hemisphere during their summer months, just as the virus did in the Northern Hemisphere from May to August.36
Vaccine for Developing Countries
The World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating the donation of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines for developing countries that are unable to purchase directly from manufacturers. On September 18, 2009, the U.S. pledged to donate 10% of its purchased vaccine to this WHO effort. Australia, Brazil, France, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, and the UK also agreed to share vaccine through the WHO. GSK and Sanofi Pasteur are expected to donate 150 million doses.37 On October 30, the WHO announced plans to distribute enough vaccine for 2% of the population of 16 developing companies. As larger quantities of vaccine become available, this program will be expanded to reach 10% of the population of 95 countries.
Due to initial shortages of vaccine in countries that have pledged to WHO, the timeline for distribution has been delayed. It is expected that donations of vaccine will be supplemented with syringes and other materials needed to administer vaccine.38 On November 10, GSK finalized its agreement with the WHO to donate 50 million doses, the first shipments of which began in late November.39 To expedite use of donated vaccine, the WHO pre-approved GSK’s Arepanrix vaccine on December 1, clearing the way for its use in developing countries as the vaccine becomes available.40 Thus far, the Philippines has received H1N1 vaccine manufactured by GSK and Green Cross from the WHO.41 Israel also received vaccine from the WHO and is sending 30,000 to 40,000 doses to the Gaza Strip.42 Kenya announced that in January, it would use 700,000+ doses of vaccine from the WHO to begin vaccinating health workers, followed by pregnant women, medical and nursing students, and malnourished children.43
Vaccine for 2009 H1N1 influenza has been developed by a handful of manufacturers using several different technical approaches. While many wealthy countries have been able to purchase enough vaccine for their entire populations, developing countries will likely not receive any vaccine until the WHO obtains donated doses, which began in late November and will continue to expand into early 2010. The approach to allocation and distribution of vaccine has been similar across those countries able to purchase vaccine.
Countries that have pursued vaccination campaigns have experienced problems similar to those that have arisen in the United States, such as delays in vaccine availability, lack of interest, and/or perceived problems with safety of vaccines. Based on limited press reports to-date, it appears that some countries, like the UK, which has a national health system, may have had an easier time than the U.S. in their efforts to identify and vaccinate high priority individuals. A more in-depth study of the efficacy of flu vaccine distribution systems is warranted.
Given the continued circulation of 2009 H1N1 influenza, it is highly likely that this virus will become a component of the Northern Hemisphere’s 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine. To date, the 2009 H1N1 virus has remained relatively stable; nonetheless, the exact make-up of the 2010-2011 seasonal vaccines will depend on the extent of any genetic changes in the circulating 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. Given the likelihood that the novel 2009 virus will continue to circulate, countries in the Northern Hemisphere should continue to encourage their populations, including priority groups, to get vaccinated as the normal winter flu season will last through February and into March for many countries.
- Swine flu drug orders create 30 jobs. The Courier. October 7, 2009. http://www.thecourier.co.uk/output/2009/10/07/newsstory13906889t0.asp. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- European Medicines Agency. Vaccines. http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/regulation/general/general_content_000407.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058002958b. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Saudi Arabia orders 10m flu vaccines. The Peninsula. November 4, 2009. http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/Display_news.asp?section=World_News&subsection=Gulf,+Middle+East+%26+Africa&month=November2009&file=World_News2009110425941.xml. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- Health Sciences Authority. HAS Approves Two H1N1 Influenza Vaccines. November 3, 2009. http://www.hsa.gov.sg/content/hsa/en/Health_Products_Regulation/Consumer_Information/Public_Advisories/Influenza_A_H1N1_information/H1N1_Vaccines/hsa-approves-two-h1n1-influenza-vaccines.html. Accessed December 15, 2009.
- Health Canada. Notice of Decision for AREPANRIX™ H1N1. October 21, 2009. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/sbd-smd/phase1-decision/drug-med/nd_ad_2009_arepanrix_h1n1_132070-eng.php. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- GSK Update: GSK’s Arepanrix™ H1N1 pandemic vaccine prequalified by the World Health Organization [news release]. London, UK: GlaxoSmithKline; December 1, 2009. http://www.gsk.com/media/pressreleases/2009/2009_pressrelease_10140.htm. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Novartis receives regulatory approval in Germany for Celtura®, a cell culture-based Influenza A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. Novartis. November 5, 2009. http://www.novartis.com/newsroom/media-releases/en/2009/1352736.shtml. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Novartis receives approval in Switzerland for Celtura®, a cell culture-based influenza A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. Novartis. November 13, 2009. http://www.novartis.com/newsroom/media-releases/en/2009/1355007.shtml. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- EMEA. Summary of Produce Characteristics. November 2009. http://www.emea.europa.eu/humandocs/PDFs/EPAR/focetria/emea-combined-h710en.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- Baxter Receives European Commission Approval for CELVAPAN H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine. Vaccine Weekly. October 21, 2009. http://www.allbusiness.com/medicine-health/medical-science-medical-research/13234375-1.html.
Accessed December 14, 2009.
- CSL Biotherapies Feature. CSL. http://annualreport.csl.com.au/AR09/csl_biotherapies_feature.htm. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- FDA approves vaccines for 2009 H1N1 influenza virus [news release]. Rockville, MD: U.S. Food and Drug Administration; September 15, 2009. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm182399.htm. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Panvax® H1N1 approval for registration for use in Australia by Therapeutic Goods Administration [news release]. Melbourne, Australia: CSL Biotherapies; September 18, 2009. http://www.csl.com.au/s1/cs/auhq/1187378853299/news/1249870443804/prdetail.htm. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Panenza®*, Sanofi Pasteur’s influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccine, approved in France [news release]. Lyon, France: Sanofi Pasteur; November 16, 2009. http://en.sanofi-aventis.com/binaries/20091116_panenza_en_tcm28-26699.pdf. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Panenza®* and Humenza®* influenza A(H1N1) vaccines demonstrate robust immune response after one dose [news release]. Lyon, France: sanofi-aventis; October 8, 2009. http://en.sanofi-aventis.com/press/press_releases/2009/ppc_26517.asp. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- 7.3M doses of H1N1 vaccine ordered for home use. China Daily. September 4, 2009. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-09/04/content_8657741.htm. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- State Food and Drug Administration, P.R. China. SFDA approves the registration application of Sinovac's Inactivated H1N1 Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion). September 3, 2009. http://eng.sfda.gov.cn/cmsweb/webportal/W43879541/A64030865.html. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Sinovac receives certificate of approval to distribute PANFLU.1 (H1N1) in Mexico. Medical News TODAY. October 23, 2009. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/168426.php. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- State Food and Drug Administration, P.R. China. SFDA approves the registration application of Hualan Bio's inactivated H1N1 influenza A vaccine (Split Virion). September 7, 2009. http://eng.sfda.gov.cn/cmsweb/webportal/W43879541/A64030876.html. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Green Cross to mass-produce indigenous influenza A vaccine. The Korea Times. October 21, 2009. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2009/11/117_53987.html. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- Hungary to buy 6M swine flu Omninvest vaccine doses. Dow Jones. August 5, 2009. http://news.ino.com/headlines/?newsid=20090805013557. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- Hungary: H1N1 vaccine approved by drug regulatory agency. Omninvest. September 29, 2009. http://www.omninvest.hu/influenza/english/h1n1.html. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Japan to buy H1N1 flu vaccine from Glaxo, Novartis. Reuters. October 6, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUST23977520091006. Accessed December 14, 2009.
- Beijing to extend A(H1N1) flu vaccine inoculation. China Daily. November 6, 2009. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-11/06/content_8926833.htm. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- State Food and Drug Administration, P.R. China. Chinese Vice Premier stresses safety in inoculation against A/H1N1 flu. November 9, 2009. http://eng.sfda.gov.cn/cmsweb/webportal/W43879541/A64031167.html. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Skepticism on swine flu’s danger limits European vaccine demand. Bloomberg. December 8, 2009. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601124&sid=alPm1GLywWRs. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- In Europe, most swine flu shots by invitation only. Associated Press. November 6, 2009. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2009-11-europe-swine-flu-shots.html. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- In Britain, no lines for H1N1 vaccine. CBS News. November 12, 2009. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/11/12/eveningnews/main5633412.shtml. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Public Health Agency of Canada. Frequently asked questions: H1N1 flu virus. November 27, 2009. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/alert-alerte/h1n1/faq/faq_rg_h1n1-fvv-eng.php. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Public Health Agency of Canada. Guidance on H1N1 flu vaccine sequencing. September 16, 2009. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/alert-alerte/h1n1/vacc/vacc-eng.php. Accessed December 8, 2009.
- Canada's doctors told to halt swine flu vaccine batch. BBC News. November 25, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8376534.stm. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- In Germany, a better vaccine for politicians? TIME. October 27, 2009. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1932366,00.html. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- Official fired after Flames flu shot controversy. Yahoo! Sports.
November 4, 2009. http://sports.yahoo.com/nhl/news?slug=ap-flames-swineflu&prov=ap&type=lgns. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- Second person fired by Alberta's health board for giving Flames H1N1 vaccines. Yahoo! Sports. November 6, 2009. http://sports.yahoo.com/nhl/news?slug=capress-hkn_flu_flames-061753420&prov=capress&type=lgns. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- WHO. Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2010 southern hemisphere influenza season. October 8, 2009. http://www.who.int/wer/2009/wer8441.pdf?ua=1. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- Free pandemic flu vaccine available for all [news release]. Melbourne, Australia: Ministry for Health and Ageing; September 30, 2009. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ministers/
publishing.nsf/Content/907DAC8DDA4756C6CA25764100112643/$File/nr167.pdf. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- Poorer nations get swine flu jabs. BBC News. October 12, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8302416.stm. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- WHO prepares H1N1 vaccines for developing countries. Reuters.
October 30, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSLU65518320091030. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- WHO. Agreement for donation of pandemic H1N1 vaccine signed. November 10, 2009. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/pandemic_vaccine_agreement_20091110/en/index.html. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- WHO approves Glaxo's swine flu shot. Associated Press. December 1, 2009. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20091201/ap_on_he_me/eu_swine_flu_vaccine;_ylt=Ans1_zu9gugNGg6CgbexVvTVJRIF_ylu=X3oDMTJscG9tMWdhBGFzc2V0A2FwLzIwMDkxMjAxL2V1X3N3aW5lX2ZsdV92YWNjaW5lBGNwb3MDMQRwb3MDMgRzZWMDeW5fdG9wX3N0b3J5BHNsawN3aG9hcHByb3Zlc2c-. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- Philippines receives first batch of H1N1 flu vaccines from WHO. All Headline News. November 26, 2009. http://www.allheadlinenews.com/articles/7017109006?Philippines%20Receives%20First%20Batch%20Of%20H1N1%20Flu%20Vaccines%20From%20WHO. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- Israel to send swine flu drug to Gaza. AFP. December 10, 2009. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jM6hPuolSI1vVPci-nExMiO94MGg. Accessed December 11, 2009.
- Kenya to introduce H1N1 vaccine. Capital News. December 4, 2009. https://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2009/12/kenya-to-introduce-hn-vaccine/. Accessed December 11, 2009.